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The compressibility of the substance is the reciprocal of the bulk modulus. The amount of compression of almost all liquids is seen to be very small as given in Table (3.5). The mathematical definition of bulk modulus as following
In physical terms can be written as
For example for water
This agrees well with the measured speed of sound in water, 1482 m/s at . Many researchers have looked at this velocity, and for purposes of comparison it is given in Table (3.5)
The effect of impurity and temperature is relatively large, as can be observed from the equation (3.37). For example, with an increase of 34 degrees from there is an increase in the velocity from about 1430 m/sec to about 1546 [m/sec]. According to Wilson3.5, the speed of sound in sea water depends on temperature, salinity, and hydrostatic pressure.
Wilson's empirical formula appears as follows:
where is about clean/pure water, is a function temperature, and is a function salinity, is a function pressure, and is a correction factor between coupling of the different parameters.
In summary, the speed of sound in liquids is about 3 to 5 relative to the speed of sound in gases.
Next: Speed of Sound in Up: Speed of Sound Previous: Speed of Sound in Index Created by:Genick Bar-Meir, Ph.D.
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